Education, Science, Technology, Innovation and Life
Open Access
Sign In

Immune Checkpoint Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Download as PDF

DOI: 10.23977/tranc.2021.030106 | Downloads: 9 | Views: 698

Author(s)

Hanyu Zhu 1

Affiliation(s)

1 Hangzhou No.4 High School, Zhejiang, China

Corresponding Author

Hanyu Zhu

ABSTRACT

Globally, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is now caused about 60% of the liver cancer. In China, more than 90% of liver cancers are caused by HBV infection. Approximately 800,000 new cases of liver cancer are reported worldwide every year, and the overall prognosis is lack than normal. Most patients with liver cancer suffer from liver diseases such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and abnormal liver function, which cause the onset of liver cancer to be hidden and progress rapidly. The diagnosis is the middle and late stage, and the best opportunity for surgery and other local treatments is lost. The Global Hepatitis Report 2017 released by the World Health Organization shows that more than 325 million people are infected with hepatitis B or C worldwide, and about 1.34 million people die each year. In China, there are about 90 million people with chronic hepatitis B virus, 30 million patients with chronic hepatitis B, and only 2 million people receive treatment, which is less than 1/10 of the total. How to improve the standardized diagnosis and treatment level of liver cancer and optimize the diagnosis and treatment strategy has always been a concern. The liver cancer drug develop is dominated by antibody drugs, of which PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 are the primary goal of antibody development. The research and development of chemical drugs takes VEGFR and BRAF proteins as the main research targets. At the same time, PD-1 and related drugs that have been on the market have shown good curative effects in a variety of tumor treatments.

KEYWORDS

Hepatocellular carcinoma, targeted drugs, PD-1, CTLA-4

CITE THIS PAPER

Hanyu Zhu. Immune Checkpoint Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Transactions on Cancer (2021) 3: 30-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23977/tranc.2021.030106.

REFERENCES

[1] The 8th edition of the American Cancer Federation's Oncology Phased Manual is interpreted in stages of TNM in hepatochocyte cell carcinoma
[2] Allemani, C., et al., Global surveillance of trends in cancer survival 2000-14 (CONCORD-3): analysis of individual records for 37 513 025 patients diagnosed with one of 18 cancers from 322 population-based registries in 71 countries. Lancet, 2018. 391(10125): p. 1023-1075.
[3] Zeng, H., et al., Changing cancer survival in China during 2003-15: a pooled analysis of 17 population-based cancer registries. Lancet Glob Health, 2018. 6(5): p. e555-e567.
[4] Kulik, L. and H.B. El-Serag, Epidemiology and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Gastroenterology, 2019. 156(2): p. 477-491.e1.
[5] Kim, H.S. and H.B. El-Serag, The Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the USA. Curr Gastroenterol Rep, 2019. 21(4): p. 17.
[6] Yang, J.D., et al., A global view of hepatocellular carcinoma: trends, risk, prevention and management. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019. 16(10): p. 589-604.
[7] Josep M Llovet, et al., Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma, The New England Journal of Medicine, 2018. 359(4): p. 378-390.  
[8] Llovet, J.M., et al., Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med, 2008. 359(4): p. 378-90.
[9] Cheng, A.L., et al., Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol, 2009. 10(1): p. 25-34.
[10] Veerendra Koppolu and Veneela KR Vasigala, CTLA-4 Antibodies in Cancer Immunotherapy. MOJ Immunology. 2016, 3(3): 00092.
[11] Jonathan H. Esensten, et al., CD28 costimulation: from mechanism to therapy. Immunity. 2016 May 17; 44(5): 973-988.
[12] Yaghoubi N, Soltani A, Ghazvini K, Hassanian SM, Hashemy SI. PD-1/ PD-L1 blockade as a novel treatment for colorectal cancer. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Feb; 110:312-318. 
[13] David M Frucht, et al., IFN-γ production by antigen-presenting cells: mechanisms emerge. Trends in Immunology. 2001, 22(10): p. 556-560.

Downloads: 84
Visits: 10853

Sponsors, Associates, and Links


All published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2016 - 2031 Clausius Scientific Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.