Education, Science, Technology, Innovation and Life
Open Access
Sign In

South China Sea Policies of ASEAN Claimant States: A Corpus-based Study

Download as PDF

DOI: 10.23977/polsr.2023.040108 | Downloads: 17 | Views: 500

Author(s)

Xue Ma 1

Affiliation(s)

1 School of Foreign Languages, University of Sanya, Sanya, China

Corresponding Author

Xue Ma

ABSTRACT

The South China Sea (SCS) issue has evolved to gain global attention and has serious economic and geo-political implications. This study analyzes the SCS policies of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) claimant states based on the self-build corpus. Combined with the facts and statistical results, the study shows that different claimants adopted different policies to address disputes, especially regarding the response to China’s activities in the region. Vietnam does its utmost to promote the internationalization of SCS on every occasion and Philippines' confrontational policies have changed considerably under President Duterte's administration. Along with the responsibilities of being a regional leader, Indonesia persists in its honest broker role and emphasizes that the resolution of the SCS issue should be based on the unity and agreement of all the ASEAN members. Pragmatic and low-profile policies are Malaysia's long-term keynote and it does not want to sacrifice its economy at the threat of confrontation with its close ally, China. The results also show that the corpus-based method has the potential to be a useful quantitative complement to future relative research, but the language sources are a limitation that need consideration in future studies.

KEYWORDS

South China Sea, SCS policies, ASEAN claimant states, China, corpus-based

CITE THIS PAPER

Xue Ma, South China Sea Policies of ASEAN Claimant States: A Corpus-based Study. Journal of Political Science Research (2023) Vol. 4: 51-68. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/DOI: 10.23977/polsr.2023.040108.

REFERENCES

[1] Li Chunxia (2017) ASEANization and Internationalization: Adjustments of Vietnam's Strategy on South China Sea in the Context of Big-power Politics. Pacific Journal, 2, 88-97.
[2] Ma Bo (2018) On the Policy of Vietnam's Internationalization of the South China Sea Issue. Humanities & Socail Sciences Journal of Hainan University, 4, 7-16.
[3] Zeng Yong (2021) Vietnam's South China Sea Policy Since 2012. Pacific Journal, 2, 71-82.
[4] Wang Chuanjian and Huang Shijing (2021) Vietnam's South China Sea Policy under the Maritime Strategy: Analysis and Evaluation. Southeast Asian Studies, 1, 106-129.
[5] TSENG Katherine Hui-Yi (2015) Vietnam's Domestic Politics and South China Sea Policy. East Asian Policy, 3, 107-113.
[6] Lai Christina J. (2017) Rhetoric Traps and China's Peaceful Rise: Malaysia and the Philippines in the South China Sea Territorial Disputes. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 0, 1-30.
[7] Bautista Lowell (2018) The South China Sea Arbitral Award amidst Shifting Philippine Foreign Policy. Korean Journal of International and Comparative Law, 1, 47-65.
[8] Nguyen Thanh Minh (2019) The Trend of Philippine President Duterte's Policy on the South China Sea. Southeast Asian Studies, 2, 47-65.
[9] Li Zhonglin (2018) Duterte Administration's Policy on the South China Sea and Its Prospect. Pacific Journal, 6, 57-67.
[10] McRae Dave (2019) Indonesia's South China Sea Diplomacy: A Foreign Policy Illiberal Turn?. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 0, 1-21.
[11] Gong Xiaohui (2016) Analysis on Indonesia's South China Sea Policy under Joko Widodo's Administration. Southeast Asian Studies, 1, 49-55.
[12] Heiduk Felix (2016) Indonesia in ASEAN: Regional Leadership between Ambition and Ambiguity. Berlin. Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik -SWP- Deutsches Institut für Internationale Politik und Sicherheit.
[13] Laksmana Evan A. (2016) The Domestic Politics of Indonesia's Approach to the Tribunal Ruling and the South China Sea. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 3, 382-388.
[14] Wang Guanghou and Tian Lijia (2017) On Indonesia's South China Sea policy. Socialism Studies, 4, 149-156.
[15] Kipgen Nehginpao (2021) Indonesia: A Reluctant Participant in the South China Sea Disputes. Strategic Analysis, 2, 116-127.
[16] Ahmad Mohammad Zaki and Sani Mohd Azizuddin Mohd (2017) China's Assertive Posture in Reinforcing its Territorial and Sovereignty Claims in the South China Sea: An Insight into Malaysia's Stance. Japanese Journal of Political Science, 1, 67-105.
[17] Ngeow Chow-Bing (2019) Malaysia's China Policy and the South China Sea Dispute under the Najib Administration (2009-2018): A Domestic Policy Process Approach. Asian Politics & Policy, 4, 586-605.
[18] Lai Yew Meng and Kuik Cheng-Chwee (2021) Structural Sources of Malaysia's South China Sea Policy: Power Uncertainties and Small-state Hedging. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 3, 277-304.
[19] Su Yingying (2017) Malaysian Pragmatic Policy of the South China Sea and Its New Changes. Southeast Asian Studies, 5, 89-104.
[20] Baker Paul. Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London. Continuum. 2006 edition.
[21] McEnery Tony and Hardie Andrew. Corpus Linguistics: Method, Theory and Practice. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 2012 edition.
[22] Baker Paul and McEnery Tony (2005) A Corpus-based Approach to Discourses of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in UN and Newspaper Texts. Journal of Language & Politics, 2, 197-226.
[23] Baker P., Gabrielatos C., Khosravinik M., Krzyzanowski M., Mcenery T. and Wodak R. (2008) A Useful Methodological Synergy? Combining Critical Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics to Examine Discourses of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK Press. Discourse & Society, 3, 273-306.
[24] Baker Paul and Vessey Rachelle (2018) A Corpus-driven Comparison of English and French Islamist Extremist texts. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 3, 255-278.
[25] Brokes Gavin and McEnery Tony (2020) Correlation, Collocation and Cohesion: A Corpus-based Critical Analysis of Violent Jihadist Discourse. Discourse & Society, 0, 1-23.
[26] Flowerdew John and Miller Lindsay. Second language listening: Theory and practice. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 2005 edition.
[27] Mautner Gerlinde (2016) Checks and Balances: How Corpus Linguistics Can Contribute to CDA. In Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, edited by Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer, 155-180. London. SAGE.
[28] Xu Jiajin. Corpora and Discourse Studies. Beijing. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. 2019 edition.
[29] Zhou Xiang. Content analysis of Communications: Research and application. Chongqing. Chongqing University Press. 2018 edition.
[30] Su Yingying (2013) On Malaysia's Policy on the South China Sea: From Malaysia's Official Media of BERNAMA and Utusan between 1999 and 2013. Southeast Asian Affairs, 4, 51-60.
[31] Xin Bin (2000) Critical Linguistics and the Critical Analysis of English news. Foreign Language Education, 4, 44-48.
[32] Figenschou Tine Ustad. Al Jazeera and the Global Media Landscape: The South is Talking Back. Abingdon. Routledge. 2014 edition.
[33] Baker Paul. Using Corpora to Analyze Gender. Translated by Tang, Liping. Beijing. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. 2018 edition.
[34] Hunston Susan. Corpora in Applied Linguistics. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 2002 edition.
[35] Salam Amir H. Y. (2011) Ideological Collocation and the Recontexualization of Wahhabi-Saudi Islam post-9/11: A Synergy of Corpus Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis. Discourse & Society, 3, 315-342.
[36] Lee Lai To (1995) ASEAN and the South China Sea conflicts. The Pacific Review, 3, 531-543.
[37] Guan Ang Cheng (2000) The South China Sea dispute revisited. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 2, 201-215.
[38] Zhang Junjue, Su Fenzhen and Ding Zhi (2017) Sea reclamation status of countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010. Sustainability, 9, 1-15.
[39] Huanqiu News (2009) Details of Vietnam and Malaysia's Outer Continental Shelf Claim have Come to Light. https://world.huanqiu.com/article/9CaKrnJlUS0.
[40] Francisco Rosemarie and Mogato Manuel (2014) Vietnam PM Says Considering Legal Action against China over Disputed Waters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-vietnam-china/vietnam-pm-says-considering-legal-action-against-china-over-disputed-waters-idUSBREA4K1AK20140522.
[41] Anh Vu (2014) Vietnam's PM Calls for Preparation of Lawsuit against China.
http://www.thanhniennews.com/politics/vietnams-pm-calls-for-preparation-of-lawsuit-against-china-27986.html.
[42] Nhan Dan Online (2016) Tribunal Issues Award on Philippines vs. China Case Concerning East Sea Disputes. https://en.nhandan.com.vn/world/item/4455102-tribunal-issues-award-on-philippines-vs-china-case-concerning-east-sea-disputes.html.
[43] Koga Kei (2017) Japan's Strategic Interests in the South China Sea: Beyond the Horizon? Australian Journal of International Affairs, 1-15.
[44] Samonte Mauro Gia (2018) What the PCA Actually Said on China-PH Dispute. https://www.manilatimes. net/2018/ 06/02/opinion/analysis/what-the-pca-actually-said-on-china-ph-dispute/403448/.
[45] Villanueva Ralph (2018) Govt to Buy Research Vessels to Explore Benham. https://www. manilatimes. net/2018/03/07/news/top-stories/govt-buy-research-vessels-explore-benham/384513/.
[46] Valente Catherine S. and Aquino, Jaime G. (2016) Duterte not Breaking PH-US Ties. https://www.manilatimes. net/2016/09/28/news/top-stories/duterte-not-breaking-ph-us-ties/288297/.
[47] The Manila Times (2018) China, Philippines Onward to 'Golden Era' of Bilateral Relations. https://www. manilatimes.net/2018/06/08/supplements/china-philippines-onward-to-golden-era-of-bilateral-relations/405956/.
[48] Valente Catherine S. (2017) Duterte Open to Joint Sea Exploration. https://www.manilatimes. net/2017/05/17/ news/top-stories/duterte-open-joint-sea- exploration/327591/
[49] Saludo Ricardo (2017) Duterte's Cabinet: Who's in Charge Here?. https://www.manilatimes.net/2017/02/28/ opinion/columnists/topanalysis/dutertes- cabinet-whos-charge/314557/.
[50] Robles Jojo (2018) Vietnam's Way. https://www.manilatimes.net/2018/07/14/ opinion/columnists/ topanalysis/ vietnams-way/419192/.
[51] Tamayo Bernadette E. (2019) Chinese Presence Near Island 'Illegal'. https://www.manilatimes.net/2019/04/05/ news/top-stories/chinese-presence-near-island-illegal/535692/
[52] Luo Tingting and Bi Wenlu (2017) The Changes and Causes of Indonesia's China Policy against the Background of the South China Sea Disputes. Journal of International Relations, 4: 77-92.
[53] Clough Jim (2018) Indonesia and ASEAN: A Unique Role to Play in the South China Sea. https://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2018/10/03/indonesia-and-asean-a-unique-role-to-play-in-the-south-china-sea.html.
[54] Anjaiah Veeramalla (2017) ASEAN Mantra: Unity, Solidarity and Centrality. https://www.thejakartapost. com/academia/2017/08/02/asean-mantra-unity-solidarity-and-centrality.html.
[55] Valencia Mark J. (2018) Does ASEAN Support US Military Presence in South China Sea?. https://www. thejakartapost.com/academia/2018/04/02/does-asean-support-us-military-presence-in-south-china-sea.html.
[56] Reuters (2019) Dr M: Malaysia can't Provoke Beijing on South China Sea, Uighur Issues. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2019/09/525394/dr-m-malaysia-cant-provoke-beijing-south-china-sea-uighur-issues.
[57] Reuters (2019) China, Malaysia to Set Up S. China Sea Dialogue Mechanism. https://www.nst.com.my/ news/nation/2019/09/520834/china-malaysia-set-s-china-sea-dialogue-mechanism.
[58] Ahmad Ruhanie (2018) Spratly Archipelago: Conflict at sea? https://www.nst.com.my/ opinion/columnists /2018/10/420682/spratly-archipelago-conflict-sea.
[59] Rahman Mohd Anwar Patho and Yaacob Mohd Azam Shah (2018) Malaysia Asks US, China to Respect its Stand to Maintain South China Sea as Safe Zone.  https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/06/385110/malaysia-asks-us-china-respect-its-stand-maintain-south-china-sea-safe.
[60] Geraldine Avila (2017) USS America's Presence in South China Sea Solely to Ensure Security and Stability. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2017/08/267712/uss-americas-presence-south-china-sea-solely-ensure-security-and.
[61] Azman Muhammad Danial (2019) Mahathir Doctrine: Avoiding Conflicts in the South China Sea. https://www. nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2019/05/484739/Mahathir-doctrine-avoiding-conflicts-south-china-sea.

All published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2016 - 2031 Clausius Scientific Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.